Traditional farm management practices in the hills of Nepal include application of farm yard manure and chemical fertilizers, use of green manure, slicing of terrace risers, and burning of crop residues. Farm yard manure (FYM) is the dominant source of nutrient in the region. Farm yard manure has not been able to sustain higher crop yields because of limited nutrient supply which is due to the poor management of FYM. So, farmers have taken up various strategies to improve soil fertility adopting a package of sustainable soil management practices. Adoption of such soil management practices in the mid-hills of Nepal has been in place for a decade and therefore improvement in soil fertility in terms of physical, chemical and biological properties is expected. In this study, the effects of sustainable soil management practices on soil fertility, soil biota, crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency in irrigated lowland and rain-fed upland were evaluated. For an in-depth understanding of the underlying processes interactions among various farm components were also studied. The findings of the study are presented in this book.