This publication investigates the challenges faced by farm schools in exercising the right to basic education, while also pin-pointing possible reasons behind learners''drop-out rate at these schools. The publication was prompted by political changes, which took place after the democratic elections of April 1994, impacting on the provisioning of education in South Africa. It was found that the State''s commitment to social justice, especially to education, remains unfulfilled for large numbers of children, youths and adults living in rural areas. Literature revealed that the South African government is failing to protect the right to a primary education for learners living on commercial farms by neither ensuring their access to farm school, nor maintaining the adequacy of learning conditions at these schools. The research findings revealed that poverty resulting from unemployment or low income on the farms increases the need for teenagers to be in paid employment in the evenings or at the weekend, increasing absenteeism and ultimately resulting in learners dropping out of the system, and even an increase in child-labour.