After the privatization of dairy extension services in 1992, there was an apparent decline and fluctuation in milk production.This book provides an understanding of the smallholder dairy farmers’ perception of the effects of privatization in the sub-sector on dairy production. Understanding farmers’ perceptions on the effects of institutional changes in livestock or crop production systems on their production is key in the process of privatization of agricultural extension services. This information may help farmers to design more sustainable coping strategies in order to boost milk production and address the negative effects of privatization. The government agencies, livestock policy makers and other service providers may also use the findings from the study to improve the dairy production service delivery. It has also provided information that may enhance improvement of market outlets for milk and milk products hence help to alleviate poverty and enhance better nutrition.