The application of paddy intensification program in Indonesia using continuously synthetic chemical fertilizer and pesticide by the farmers in their paddy fields in every paddy growing season, slowly but surely, has generated less favorable impacts to quality of ecosystem and to the high production cost. It has generated an idea “back to nature” through the development of organic rice farming system using organic fertilizer and pesticide. However, planting paddy using organic farming system has not been done progressively. This book presents the results of the research which identifies farmers’ motivation factors to plant paddy using organic or conventional farming system in the village of Sumber Ngepoh, East Java province, Indonesia. The economic, social, ecological, cultural, and information factors which very strongly motivate them to apply organic or conventional farming system are presented in this book.