The success of efforts made to improve rural welfares and enhance production and productivity of agriculture are strongly attached extent to which the problems of people and farm are understood by the development actors as well as other stakeholders. One and a recent alternative approach that helps to identify real problems of the rural communities is a framework for analysis of farming systems and sustainable livelihoods. Keeping this in view, the book is prepared to provide concepts and selected examples of their applications particularly for students affiliated towards Agricultural and Rural Development Research profession in development countries. In the first part, such major topics as an overview of agriculture in developing economy, system thinking in agricultural research, farming system research implementation and evaluation are detailed. The second part presents concepts of livelihoods, sustainable household livelihood framework, and livelihood strategies. While reading the material, you would come across various activities, notes, self-assessment questions, as well as checklists- all of which are meant to complement the efforts you exert to take the best out of the book.