PET/CT is a hybrid imaging system that integrates the functional imaging modality known as positron emission tomography with multi-slice x-ray computed tomography scanner. This hybrid system can provide both functional and anatomical imaging data during a single scanning session. The use of FDG PET/CT imaging has been recently expanded into the diagnostic evaluation and treatment follow-up of the infectious disease of tuberculosis (TB). However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the utilisation of FDG PET/CT scans for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) lesions. Therefore, this gap is the primary motivating theme for this research. The objective of this book is to give an overview on the application of FDG PET/CT in detecting EPTB lesions as well as exploring novel scanning techniques and protocols for image quality improvement and quantification of radiation dose arising from this imaging procedure.