Since 1991 in Ethiopia much of attention of politicians and scholars has been largely on elections, election results and its value to democracy. This Book attempts to broaden both the theoretical and factual terrain of this interesting issue by delving into the interface between federalism, democracy, party system, political parties, electoral systems and elections in general and in Ethiopia. It has given much emphasis to the electoral system and tries to show how electoral system can either enhance or undermine the intended purposes of federalism and democratic governance in Ethiopia. It also thus argues strongly that for genuine federalism and sustainable multi-party democracy to be nurtured and consolidated, Ethiopia needs to undergo a deliberate electoral system reform. Such reform process should aim at achieving inclusiveness and accountable government.