This book focuses on the contentious issue of resource control agitation by the Niger Delta Region and it’s consequence on Nigerian Federalism with the basis that this issue emerged at the same time with the present democratic era in Nigeria in the year 1999. This agitation for resource control by the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria shook the then young democracy and finally, led to serious litigation between the Federal Government and the State Governments. The central argument of the states are that natural resources located offshore should be regarded as located within their respective states for the purpose of calculating the 13 percent natural resource derivation payment to them among others. The consequence of the arrogation of these fiscal powers by the Federal Government on the Niger Delta is that the region is plunged into total neglect socially and developmentally, environmentally etc. The above are the main thrust of this book. The audiences of this book are those who want to know and understand the politics in the agitation for resource control by the Niger Delta Region and the impact that the agitation is having on Nigeria Federalism.