This book develops a unified analytical framework to understand the relationships among household energy use, indoor air pollution (IAP), and health impacts and enables policy-makers to analyze welfare effects of various interventions. It provides quantitative evidence that IAP has significant health impacts comparable to smoking. Based on analysis of IAP impacts on spirometry indicators, the evidence suggests that IAP has major impacts on restrictive lung disease rather than obstructive lung disease. These results explain why certain diseases are more highly associated with IAP exposure. Considering that traditional biomass will likely continue to be the most popular cooking fuel in rural areas of India in the near future, and that households can achieve considerable welfare gains from improvement in stoves and kitchen ventilation, the analysis suggests that the Indian government should consider reviving the improved stove program with a new advanced stove strategy coupled with conducting advocacy campaigns on how to improve kitchen ventilation.