The effectiveness of Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) systems for fisheries management is debated; some scholars argue that CMT is embedded within particular historical, socio-economic and political contexts and that unless it evolves to changing circumstances, its effectiveness for fisheries management will wane under external influences and changing exploitation patterns. Each CMT regime is unique; hence its response to changing circumstances may vary. A better understanding of the circumstances under which a CMT regime is likely to succeed is important if it is to be effectively used for fisheries management. Drawing on the DPSIR (Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) model and taking a multidisciplinary approach, this book appraised the effectiveness of customary marine tenure (CMT) as a policy response (R) in the small-scale fisheries management (SSFM) of coral reef finfish fisheries in Nggela (Solomon Islands). CMT was identified as potentially being an important prerequisite for SSFM in locations where it is practiced but it is concluded that its effective use requires a multidisciplinary understanding of the social contexts in which it operates.