Flood is the one of the most important natural hazard in India that occurs frequently due to some natural and anthropogenic factors. The delta region of Mahanadi river basin located in eastern part of India which is densely populated and major paddy growing region in the state of Orissa. Floods are frequent phenomena occurring in this part of the state during south-west monsoon, which causes severe damage of lives, property as well as agriculture. Remote sensing and GIS is an important tool for the flood mapping and its damage assessment. It provides timely assistance and save lives and property. The main objective of the present book is to give flood damage assessment and vulnerability analysis in part of Mahanadi Delta Basin, India. Using SAR data flood hazard map and flood depth the vulnerability of each element at risk is calculated. Finally the total risk has been identified. So, Remote sensing and GIS can be used for the risk communication among the people in our society for different strategic management and planning. This book meets the requirements of Under Graduate and Post Graduate courses in geography, earth science, environmental management and Disaster management.