The available limited data about nutritional status of children under 5 years in Sudan reflects the worse and miserable situation of children especially in the marginalized rural areas. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive studies to figure out the problem and find solutions for improving the current situation. In principle, the present data represent a scientific approach that was aiming to reflect the nutritional status of children under 5 years in El Fau rural area (Gadaref State) which indicates the situation in the eastern part of the country. Based on the preliminary data provided by Sudanese Development Call Organization (NIDAA),the area records high rate of illiteracy (particularly among women), rampant poverty, lack of basic health services, unsafe drinking water, high prevalence of malaria, bilharziasis and diseases related to poor sanitation and hygiene. Indeed, these factors affect the children health and nutritional status in the study area.