Food-borne infections are caused by bacteria present in food. If bacteria become numerous and the food is consumed, bacteria may continue to grow in intestines and cause illness. Salmonella, Campylobacter, hemorrhagic E. coli and Listeria all cause infections. Food intoxication results from consumption of toxins (or poisons) produced in food by bacterial growth. Toxins released by bacteria cause illness in human beings. Common kinds of bacteria that produce toxins include Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. In the case of Clostridium perfringens, illness is caused by toxins released in the gut after consumption of huge numbers of vegetative cells. The importance of milk in our diet is well established as it is considered the best, ideal and complete food for all age groups. However, in spite this, milk can also serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of some diseases under certain circumstances. Moreover, by virtue of possessing almost all the essential nutritional factors, milk can also serve as an excellent source and protective medium for certain microorganisms, which may include potential pathogens capable of causing various health problems to the consumers.