Food prices have increased rapidly in recent years, and so has ethanol consumption. Is there a connection between these two? This book offers a fresh and innovative discussion on the impact of ethanol production on food inflation. The author presents a comparative study between the two major ethanol producers, Brazil and the United States, to find out whether sugarcane ethanol and corn ethanol have a different impact on food prices. Other inflationary factors, such as oil prices, exchange rates and increasing demand from emerging countries are also taken into consideration. The findings are especially useful to researchers and policy makers interested in understanding how the diversion of land and food to produce ethanol affects food prices.