Forest degradation is the major ecological problem in developing countries. It is a dynamic process which can be attributed to various socioeconomic and biophysical factors.Forests are biodiversity hotspot and home to various biodiversity resources. However, forests are under dramatic transformations for multifaceted socioeconomic reasons.Preceding studies examined determinants of everyone''s decisions to adapt conservation practices from economic and financial aspects, neglecting perceptions on the problems and behavioral change to enhance ecological sustainability. The remnant natural forests are found largely in localized distant areas. Human perceptions of biodiversity issues like forests greatly influence their approach to biodiversity exploitation and conservation this can be different for regions, cultures and nations. Acceptability of conservation innovations varies with knowledge of local use and perceptions levels towards biodiversity. This book has indicated that traditional knowledge and proximity to natural resources is of prime importance in forest biodiversity conservation motivation, participation and implementation.