Information and communication technology (ICT) is seen as great opportunity for higher education institutions, and considerable efforts and resources are invested worldwide in promoting its use. As with other institutions in the world, African higher education institutions have invested considerable resources in ICT development. However, it has been reported repeatedly that the continent experiences problems with ICT development. A review of the literature has identified internal and external factors that limit ICT development as well as problems associated with bringing technology into local practices. Specifically, technology is often purchased, and then staff members are retrained in order to use it. This assumes the ‘neutrality’ of technology, hiding that it is the product of specific ideologies and part of particular global economic patterns. The study findings confirm the enormous benefits that African higher education institutions can gain from technology. The benefits that were identified included more efficient communication, teaching, and research. However, it was feared that costs and possible cultural impact would arise as negative aspects of technology adoption.