As the main refugee-recipient country for the post-2003 Iraqi exodus, Syria warrants interest for anyone concerned with the transnational security implications of refugee flows from countries experiencing internal strife. Which are most important of pre- or post-displacement factors for Syrian domestic security? The author of this field-based study of predominantly Christian Iraqi refugees in the Damascene suburb of Jaramana, critically examines theory on refugee involvement in political violence in light of his own qualitative data. The author offers a theoretical critique and argues that the question of domestic security in Syria seems to be largely a matter of meeting the socioeconomic needs of urban refugees and locals. Consequently, he argues, relief and development should be linked and Syria must start capitalizing on Iraqi human capital by allowing its refugees to lead more productive lives.