The energy of fossil fuels is the basis of modern civilization. The effective utilisation of natural hydrocarbons requires knowledge of the processes of extraction, separation and processing of coal, oil and natural gas. We discuss problems of fossil raw materials and estimate possible and proven reserves of raw materials, issues of non-traditional use of energy resources. A special chapter describes the production and use of biofuels, the comparison of fossil and renewable energy resources. The book deals with the basic information necessary for engineers and chemists working in the oil industry.