The book is devoted the analysis of modern functional brain asymmetry concepts. Data about sensory and motor lateral characteristics are presented, the role of hemispheric specialization and interhemispheric interactions during the natural and social adaptation are discussed. Inconsistent data about creativity of people with different lateral profiles are offered. The hypothesis about activity of brain hemisphere activity during decision of intellectual problems or emotional experience are proposed. Data about gender and age aspects of functional brain asymmetry are analyzed. Author''s concept about a role of functional brain asymmetry in evolution are offered.