This book is designed to provide a complete package on different physical and chemical properties of soil along with the geological processes occurring on Earth. Both physical and chemical properties of soils are of paramount importance in affecting the crop growth. Soil texture, structure, bulk density, particle density, plasticity, consistency, adhesion and cohesion are important physical properties that play important role in affecting plant growth. Different types of acidic, saline and sodic soil, cation and anion exchange phenomena and types of soil colloids are also included in brief. Evolution and composition of earth, rocks and mineral composition of earth,geological behavior of elements,different land forms,geological formation of Nepalese soils and physiographic units of mountain and terai soils are dealt in advance.