This book is a compilation of four studies carried out in three major maize producing agroecological zones in Uganda to assess the safety of maize with regard to Fusarium infection and fumonisin contamination. The first study involved a field survey to document the agronomic and postharvest practices that predispose maize to Fusarium infection and fumonisin contamination. The second study involved isolation and identification of Fusarium species associated with maize produced in Uganda. The high intraspecific variability amongst the Fusarium species isolated from freshly harvested maize formed the basis of the third study that established the fumonisin production potential of 25 Fusarium strains. The fourth study investigated the dynamics of Fusarium incidence and fumonisin levels in maize stored in the most commonly used traditional storage structures. The major findings indicated that maize obtained from three major maize producing agroecological zones was highly infected with Fusarium. The average fumonisin content of the samples analysed was above the current limit of 5 mg/kg recommended by Uganda National Bureau of Standards.