Galectins are essential molecules that serve one of the most important functions in life at the cellular level recognition. Their expression and significant roles in various biological pathways and physiological process have been stamped in almost the taxa of living world. The present book accounts for the basic concepts of galectin biology, covering topics related to their classification within the kingdoms of life and their varied applications in various biological pathways. To make the book more application specific, the purification and extensive physico-chemical characterization of a galectin-1 from buffalo (Capra hircus) heart has been incorporated. The immunological and membrane studies have been crafted in to touch upon the clinical relevance of the galectin biology research. The book is intended to serve as an introductory guide for beginners in the galectin research arena and a short reference guide to the experts.