Genetics is the study of heredity, the process by which characters are passed from parents to their offsprings, so that all offsprings resemble their parents. According to the concept of genetics, heredity is controlled by large number of genes that are located on chromosomes which are called Hereditary Vehicles. Chromosomes are composed of deoxyribo¬nucleic acid (DNA) and protein. Many diseases are a result of sudden heritable structural change in DNA. This process by which a gene undergoes a structural change is known as Mutation. It may lead to various disorders such as growth retardation, mental retardation and a variety of somatic abnormalities.Mutations leading to various genetic abnortmalities account for most of pediatric hospital admissions and childhood mortality. Assessment of mutation rates and conditions modifying them is one of the main fields of mutation research in humans.Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cellular growth; the most common genetic disease.There are several disorders with oral manifestations having genetic association. Hence there is a need to understand the basics of genetics and its related disorders.