For low land areas of Ethiopia, where most pastoralists live, droughts have been a major issue for centuries. With these droughts, Pastoralist has traditionally ways of coping that are embedded in their social structures. However, with the current droughts, traditional coping strategies are ineffective and unsustainable. Besides, most current studies among pastoralist communities of Ethiopia show that there need to be an intervention that is built on the existing traditional drought coping mechanisms. To design effective and sustainable drought coping mechanism and deliver gender-equitable services, it is vital to know strategies used by different gender during the drought season. This Book therefore, provides information on what pastoralist men and women traditionally do while drought occurs. The book was written on the case of pastoralist communities of Shinile District in Somali Regional state, Ethiopia. The study shows that pastoralist men and women employed different drought coping mechanisms. The analyses shed light on the importance of considering the differences between interest and needs of men and women for any interventions beside drought.