Since 1990s the provision of Microfinance services through NGOs has gained ground in international development discourse for ameliorating the plight of poor men and women in developing countries. Critical in this discussion are the issues of efficacy of NGOs' interventions in the face of cultural norms and values of the society and the political and economic circumstances in which poverty alleviation programmes are run in a society. This book is an attempt to critically analyse these issues in the context of Pakistani society. Our analysis reveals issues at four level that are not working towards the desired goal: the paradigm shift within microfinance industry, the government's lack of will and capacity to initiate pro-poor and pro-women changes for their socio-economic development, the donor community's laxity in rigorously pursuing what they purport about microfinance and normative structures at grass-roots level. The books should be helpful for students and readers of development studies, especially those wishing to understand and analyse complexities around the notion of women's empowerment through poverty alleviation programmes.