It is difficult to answer which is the most prevailing factor that influenced the academic achievement. As it depends upon several related factors. The degree of performance in particular subjects depends on Skills, Hardwork, Family Dynamics, Gender, Attitude, Aptitude and Interest of the students. The present work focuses on gender differences in Science and Mathematics achievement. Gender still plays an important role in academic achievement in Indian societies. The book comprised of five chapters i.e. Introduction, Review of the Related Researches, Methodology and Design of the Study, Analysis and Interpretation of Data, and Summary and Conclusion and Suggestion. The book is a useful resource for educational researcher, policy planner and administrators.