This study was designed to make a comparative analysis of mathematics achievement between girls and boys at lower secondary education level. It was also aimed at investigating the extent of association between girls’ mathematics achievement and school type. Besides, students’ attitude towards mathematics, parents’ attitude and teachers’ attitude on students’ mathematics performance based on their gender were analysed. The study has employed both quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods. Instruments were applied to 1280 students drawn from 10 Addis Ababa lower cycle of secondary schools (grade nine and ten). This book will help other professionals as stepping stone for further study in the area by considering more variables which don’t included under this book.