This work examines power relations in the implementation of gender equity policies in higher education in Japan, and documents the strategies used, by Japanese feminists in relation to these policies. The project examines the development of the Basic Law for a Gender-equal Society and documents how it has been interpreted by bureaucrats and implemented within the field of higher education. Drawing on feminist theory and critical discourse theory, the work explores the relationship between gender discourses and social practices, and analyses how unequal gender relations have been sustained through the implementation of Japanese gender equity policy. The work highlights the struggles between policy makers in the Japanese government and bureaucracy, and feminist educators working for change. The book contributes the knowledge emerging not only from the findings but also from methodological aspects in doing feminist critical policy research.