This thesis report provides information on the importance of the agricultural sector in Kenya as a trigger for the country’s economic growth and food security. It examines causes for the declining performance of agriculture sector and looks at the development priorities that the government has put in place to revive the agricultural economy. An analysis is made of gender disparity as a fundamental cause for the declining food security levels. It observes, however, that insignificant consideration is given to gender inequalities in agricultural interventions. HIV and AIDS, a crucial characteristic of the rural sector is worsening these gender inequalities and food insecurity in the country. On the contrary HIV and AIDS is fuelled by gender inequalities, thus forming a cycle of relationships between gender, HIV and AIDS and food security. The specific focus on women highlights their immense contribution to food security and further appreciates constraints and limitations they face in their associated role. From the field findings and analysis of Vihiga District, recommendations are thereby drawn.