The “What about the boys?” debate has emerged in Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA in which boys are described as the “new disadvantaged”. There are numerous data that have pointed to the poorer performance and attitudes of males when compared with females in schools,. However, the gender issue is very complex and there has been a call for nuanced and careful readings of data. This book provides a more equitable comparison of the gender and socio-economic differences in participation, subject selection and performance in grade 12 subjects. One of Australia''s largest senior secondary schools was the main setting for the study. This project comprised three stages: a quantitative investigation involving 2500 students; an anonymous survey of 800 students; and focus group interviews with 28 students and teachers. School teachers, teacher educators, and educational researchers will find that the fresh and detailed analysis of the gender and socio- economic data will shed new light on the gender debate and challenge us all to create a more inclusive curriculum and school system.