Genes, which are carried on chromosomes are the basic physical and functional units of heredity. In humans, genes are compressed and bundled into a set of 23 pairs of chromosomes, which stabilize and protect the DNA. Gene therapy is an emerging field of biomedicine that has commanded considerable scientific and popular attention. Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease. It is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development.Gene therapy is having a pervasive and significant impact on areas related to science-based dental practice. Biological research is presenting dentists with more potential treatment options for the future. Gene therapy is in its infancy, and current gene therapy is primarily experimental, with most human clinical trials only in the research stages. Over time and with proper oversight, human gene therapy might become an effective weapon in modern medicine's arsenal to help fight various diseases.