Plantations of Tree Born Oilseeds to produce biodiesel and Carbon Forestry will be very effective solution for overcome problem of fossil fuel scarcity and global warming. Pongamia pinnata (L.) is an important species which have big potential for that and can be planted all over tropics. But there is very little information available about genetics, physiology and cultivation practices of Pongamia. Present book try to fill the information gap at some extent. It contains brief information about biological feature and distribution of species. It also takes account of genetic variation, its important and method to study it. Role of molecular markers in genetic variation study and tree domestication process is discussed in this monograph. Its include study of genetic variation in Pongamia population in Konkan region with Polymeric Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence Repeats (cpSSR). Base on study further tree improvement program is suggested. This book is useful for forestry students, personals and geneticists, plant breeders, biodiesel companies etc.