In this manuscript, we have used for the first time two important approaches of genetic dissection (QTL interval mapping and association mapping) together for the study of marker-trait associations for the identification of molecular markers associated with a variety of economically important traits with emphasis on grain weight (GW)in bread wheat. We mainly focused on the following aspects: (i) Preparation of whole-genome framework linkage map of an intervarietal RIL mapping population developed specifically for GW and derived from the cross Chinese Spring × Rye Selection 111 . (ii) Single-locus QTL analysis (interval mapping) for GW (including other grain traits), and other agronomically important traits using the above RIL mapping population. (iii) Study of QTL × QTL epistatic interactions and QTL × environment interactions using two-locus QTL analysis. (iv) Study of genetic diversity and population structure of a collection of elite Indian bread wheat cultivars. (v) Association mapping of GW and other agronomically important traits using above collection of elite Indian bread wheat cultivars.