Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, an important underutilized crop of great potential, is grown as a traditional crop in China, India, Japan, Korea, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In India, it is grown as minor oilseed crop in Himalayan highlands. Genetic diversity of perilla landraces was characterized using morphological and molecular methods and the quality traits were also estimated. The studies show good amount of genetic diversity among the Indian landraces. Although the main area of diversity of Perilla frutescens is assumed to be China, yet other areas where Perilla frutescens is widely distributed are equally important for the conservation of its genetic resources. There is a need to assess various "adding value" initiatives to perilla crop diversity in order to link it with economic development of the farmers in traditional production systems. The results of the present study justifiably highlight usefulness of perilla landraces in breeding program for characters of agronomic and economic importance.