Genetic diversity is a basic breeding tool for any agricultural crops. Cocoa is highly cross pollinated crop due to the prevalence of self-incompatibility, thereby paving the way for high variability in cocoa population. Tamil Nadu happens to be the potential state for cocoa production on account of more area under irrigated coconut and cocoa being intercropped in it. The trees have adapted to the local climatic conditions of the region for many years. High degree of genetic variability has been observed in Tamil Nadu. However, the genetic diversity of cocoa existing in Tamil Nadu state has not been scientifically documented. Systematic identification, documentation and conservation of genetic diversity of cocoa either ex situ or in situ will be the viable approach for improvement of cocoa in Tamil Nadu. This book will helpful to characterize the cocoa trees morphologically and also by the means of molecular markers.