The present book discusses the isolation and genetic diversity analysis of Rhizobia from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Indiscriminate use of synthetic fertilizers has led to contamination of the soil, polluted water basins, destroyed micro-organisms & friendly insects, making the crop more prone to diseases and most importantly reduced soil fertility. Bacteria of family Rhizobiaceae are symbiotic and effectively convert atmospheric nitrogen which is utilized by the host and internationally been accepted as an alternative source of chemical fertilizer. The long term use of bio-fertilizers is economical, eco-friendly, more efficiently utilized, productive and accessible to marginal and small farmers over chemical fertilizers. The strength of the book is detailed methodology and procedures to isolate and characterize the strains at molecular level along with detailed review and literature to give a snapshot of state of art research in bio fertilizer research.