Genetic Epidemiology came into existence slowly by rapprochment between the epidemiologically oriented geneticists and by genetically oriented epidemiologist. Neel and Schull in 1954 presented the first account of Genetics and epidemiology and introduced it as ‘Epidemiological genetics’, presenting it in a manner in which genetic concepts became an integral part of the armamentarium of modern epidemiologist. Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genes and environment on markers of health and disease risk in populations. It makes an attempt to identify the of risk factors attributable to genes, environments,and interactions between these two factors. Advances in molecular genetics and inability of theories to explain modern day diseases such as cancer has given rise to this method that may offer us an affordable means to measure or observe study participant’s genetic material at the sequence level as well as more detailed functional data and help in, both, development of cure and prevention of the disease. The book mainly focus on oral disease and aims to provide basic framework regarding methods of genetic epidemiology, and its application in Dental public health.