Cotton is one of the most important commercial crop of India and world’s leading natural fiber crop. Globally cotton of commerce is regular white linted, while natural pigmented cottons are available in shades of brown and green. Eco-friendly cottons are very small niche market world wide. The growing concern for environment and health hazards associated with synthetic dyes, particularly in western countries have given fillip for cultivation of natural pigmented cotton and its research. A revival of interest in chemically free raw materials, minimally handled, environmentally friendly production strategies are contributing to a new demand for natural pigmented cotton fiber. This book provides detail study on exploring new variability, widening the genetic base for natural color cotton improvement both for yield and fiber quality which fulfill the increased demand of color cottons suitable for textile industry. The lint color is linked with undesirable traits especially low yield and poor fiber quality. Preliminary studies on Molecular markers like SSR and inheritance of fiber color will provide us the basic genetics involved for color with linked traits for the core improvement.