Cauliflower is a widely cultivated and consumed vegetable across the world. Variability in genetic resources since time immemorial has always played a key role in the development of promising lines and ultimately the yield improvement. The observed variability is a combined estimate of genetic and environmental factors, of which only former one is heritable. It is well known that selection of one trait leads to a correlated response in other characters since a living unit is not merely a sum of independent part but is integrated as a whole, having a complex relationship among different characters. Path coefficient analysis helps for portioning of the total correlations into direct and indirect effects and useful in formulating selection indices for genetic improvement of yield. The present book provides an overview of germplasm collection and evaluation of cauliflower with emphasis on Indian Perspectives. We sincerely hope that this publication will be immense value to the vegetable scientists, students and policy makers and will serve as a launching pad to herald new initiatives in the area of research.