Genetic variation is the fundamental requirement of any improvement in the characters of interest. There are many quantitative tools available to assess variations present in a character and to estimate the heritable component of it. This book is a case study of application of these tools for studying genetic variation in chir pine (Pinus roxburghii), an important tree species of the Himalayas, yielding timber and resin. This study would help the researchers working in the field of tree improvement by providing an insight into the quantitative analytical methods and their application in tree breeding. This book would be of particular importance to the scientists and students engaged in tree improvement of chir pine.