Genetics, the scientific study of heredity and variation, is still a comparatively new subject, but it has already built up a body of principles which are rapidly gaining popular consideration and finding important practical applications. It can also be described as a discipline of biology, science of heredity and variation in living organisms. It is not just about rare disorders anymore, and is no longer confined to the genetic specialist; it increasingly affects every facet of healthcare including dental practice. Dental practitioners commonly encounter hereditary conditions associated with abnormal tooth formation or periodontal disease. With the progress of eradication of communicable diseases in the last decades and the improvement of socioeconomic and sanitary levels, human genetics is emerging as an area that requires further study for disease reduction. Interest in dental genetics is probably increasing due to advances in our understanding of genetic problems and better evaluation of the problems of patients and their families. Hence the focus of this review is to provide a brief overview of genetics, its clinical implications and its relation to various dental disease.