Wastewater is commonly utilized for agricultural lands in India and countries in arid and semi-arid areas; or disposed into fresh water streams, which again can be used for agricultural purposes. Although this treatment generally increases crop production, however, it results in the accumulation of toxic substances in soil and in the crop as sewage is usually contaminated with pollutants such as heavy metals and polychlorinated substances from domestic and industrial wastes that enter into the sewer system. Industrial and agricultural activities have led to a substantial release of toxic heavy metals in the environment, which can constitute a major hazard for the ecosystem and human health. Antibiotic resistance is a public health concern of great urgency due to growing inefficacy of antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases. This is mainly due to the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria, which is exacerbated by the overuse of antimicrobials in humans and the intensive use of antibiotics in animal agriculture.