The manuscript intends to investigate the impacts of traditional gold mining and its implications to human health with respect to the unknown liver disease, it also aims to study the petrology and geochemistry of the rocks from the disease affected areas by analyzing and interpreting water, stream sediment and rock samples. The findings indicate the area to consist of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Metals such as, Al, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, Mn. It was found except Cu, Pb and Zn, the average concentration of Mn, Al, and Fe, As, Cd, Mo and Cr exceeded average worldwide shale standard concentrations. The sediments are very highly contaminated by Cd (100% samples). The area is moderately contaminated with Mo and Al and highly polluted sediment quality with Cd, respectively. The contaminated water has some heavy metals at a toxic level. When these metals contaminate the water and soil-crops in higher concentrations it affect the health of human in the area. The results gave clear indication for the cause of the deadly unknown liver disease that is expanding from time to time in northern Ethiopia.