The monograph “Geology and Non-traditional resources of the Black Sea“ examines the origin, properties and application of deep sea organogenic mineral sediments (DSOMS) formed during the newest ages of the geological history of the Black Sea. It examines also the natural conditions influencing the formation of the sediment complex and the mineral resources. The Black Sea is seen as a unique natural geobiotechnological reactor capable of generating specific geological resources. The object of this study is the Black Sea bottom and more specifically the Bulgarian economic zone and the western region of the Black Sea and the subject of the study is the origin, the properties and the distribution of deep sea organogenic mineral sediments (DSOMS) and the evaluation of the possibilities to use them as a complex raw material. This paper lays the foundations of the application of a new type of complex raw material from the bottom of the Black Sea and examines the composition, the properties, the distribution and the origin of DSOMS as well as the possible spheres of their economic application and extraction.