Reproduction is a physiologically costly process that consumes significant amounts of energy. The primary metabolic cue that modulates reproduction is the availability of oxidizable fuel. The organism''s metabolic status is transmitted to the brain through metabolic fuel detectors. There are many of these detectors and one of the most important fuel detectors is ghrelin. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone primarily secreted from the stomach and hypothalamus, has emerged as an orexigenic food intake controlling signal acting upon hypothalamic centers. Recently the potential reproductive role of ghrelin has received great attention. This work investigates the influence of food restriction on the secretion and gene expression of ghrelin and explores the effect of this hormone on the levels as well as gene expression of the reproductive hormones in adult male and female rats. So prolonged food restriction with a consequent excessive ghrelin could be one of the factors responsible for the suppression of reproductive axis in males and females. Thus ghrelin provides a link between energy homeostasis and reproductive capacity in adults.