Gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) also known as “Parinari macrophylla Sabine” is one of the sources of under-explored oilseeds found in the wild and/or semi-cultivated in various part of the World. The tree produces fruits in form of an ellipsoid drupe, glabrous, yellowish-brown with a hard stone embedded in a thick pulp. The flesh is soft and yellowish when fresh, with a peculiar flavor sometimes likened to avocado. The endocarp contains 1 or 2 kernels. Keeping in view the potential of gingerbread plum kernel as an underutilized oilseed, this study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties; assess the nutritional values based on amino acids; study the functional properties; evaluate the antioxidant activities upon hydrolysis and finally, purify and identify antioxidant peptides from gingerbread plum kernel proteins. The results presented in this book demonstrated that beyond its traditional uses, gingerbread plum kernels have a lot of potential when compared with the well-known and extensively used oilseeds.