Food and livelihood insecurity is one of the major challenges in Africa. Several factors are responsible for the low living standards in Africa particularly in sub-Sahara Africa. One of the major factors directly affecting the living condition of rural people is animal disease. Trypanosomiasis is the animal disease caused by tsetse flies existing in the low lands where the life of the people is directly depends on animal husbandry. This study was conducted in Southwestern lowlands of Ethiopia where such disease is the major problem of the communities. This book, therefore, provides a way to map out the distribution and intensity of tsetse flies in the area. Moreover, the application of GIS to assess the impacts of tsetse flies on agriculture, animal husbandry and the rural livelihoods in general is the major focus of this book.