Switzerland and Japan – both highly developed nations – are challenged by a historically unprecedented phenomenon – the phenomenon of a shrinking and rapidly ageing workforce. Both policy makers and business leaders must seek strategies to cope with this phenomenon to prevent the impending decline of the economy and the disintegration of a civil society that has a sophisticated social security system. Based on 36 high-profile interviews and extensive literature research, this book devises strategic recommendations for business leaders and policy makers by applying a comparative method. The interviewee sample was selected deliberately and carefully. The profiles were diverse, consisting of senior managers, professors, an embassy representative, and other labor market experts from both countries. Although both Switzerland and Japan have similar economic focuses, they are currently at different stages of demographic change. In addition, they have quite different cultures. Consequently, recommendations benefit from cross-pollination based on fundamental differences and surprising similarities in facing and approaching this challenge.