The book concentrates upon the use of indigenous medicinal substance in Manipur with special reference to 1990’s in order to understand the issues concerning indigenous medicine after the change in the economic policy of the Indian Government. The WHO strategy on harmonization and integration of indigenous medicine and modern medicine (2002-2005) has led India to take some initiatives for indigenous medicine and its knowledge. Patenting and protection of plants and substances; growers rights and biodiversity Act are some important initiatives. Therefore the book draws from the functionalist perspective and on the concept that knowledge can be treated as property; identify various social, economic, political, cultural determinants of health affecting utilization of indigenous medicine and developed the conceptual framework. The book, thus, conceptualized the association between the production of indigenous medicine and the concern regarding IPR originating from the local, national and international sectors in indigenous medical traditions and traditional health resources of the indigenous communities of Manipur, a strategic state in North East India.