The book analyses the impact of globalization on the ability of the Westphalian state to regulate the use of small arms and retain the monopoly over the legitimate use of force. The study highlights the issues and challenges impacting the ability of the state in Africa in particular in combating illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW). The Study does link the illicit proliferation of SALW in Africa to among other factors the proxy wars on the continent during the cold war and in its aftermath. This is due to the fact that excess surplus of arms especially in Eastern Europe were readily available to criminal groups with minimal regulation. The study identifies the impact of illicit SALW on the Great Lakes Region of Africa with emphasis on Kenya and Uganda. A critical analysis of the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol is conducted.A comparative analysis is made between the small arms regulatory framework of the EU with that under the Nairobi Protocol. The author contends that the small arms and light weapons industry is the least regulated globally. The study calls for a global consensus and action towards the enactment of an Arms Trade Treaty.